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Nerkar and Chakraborthy: Review of azadirachta indica


Introduction

What is neem?

It is typically grown in tropical and semi-tropical regions. Neem trees also grow in islands located in the southern part of Iran. Its fruits and seeds are the source of neem oil.1

Figure 1

The neem tree

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage1.png

Components

Leaves

Imparipinnate 20-37 cm in length. Leaf-lets are opposite or alternate, obliquely falcate-lanceolate, serrate, dark green to greenish yellow in colour.2

Figure 2

The neem leaflet

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage2.png

Flowers

White scented 5 mm long pentamerons, staminal tube, dentate, anthers inserted inside.3

Figure 3

The neem flowers

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage3.png

Fruits

Drupe 1.2 to 1.8 cm long, oblong, 1 — seeded smooth greenish yellow in colour. Intensely bitter in Taste.4

Figure 4

The neem drupe

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage4.png

Bark

Rough, greyish to brownish in colour, channelled in shape, about 10mm in thickness — with scaly to fissured surface. Internally yellowish in colour laminated and fibrous.5

Figure 5

The neem bark

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage5.png

Chemical constituents

The active ingredient areazadirachtin, salannin and meliantrol. The neem leaves contain meliacin, nimbin, nimbidin, nimbosterol and a bitter principle called margosasine.

Neem oil is expressed from seeds and it contains chiefly glycerides of oleic (50%) and stearic (20%) acids.6

Chemical structure

Figure 6

Structure of active chemical constituents

https://s3-us-west-2.amazonaws.com/typeset-prod-media-server/96d55c33-2d8d-4789-ae9c-5ed54db44a9cimage6.png

Preparation

Solid

Soap

Neem soap is one of the most widely used skin care products in India. The soap acts as an antibacterial, clearing up skin rashes, acne and eczema. It also soothes backaches and relieves tension and stress from the muscles

Ingredient

1. 176 grams olive oil

2. 176 grams sunflower oil

3. 50 grams coconut oil

4. 40 grams palm oil

5. 18 grams castor oil

6. 15 grams neem oil

7. 66 grams caustic soda

8. 200 grams soda

9. 15grams essential oil

Neem capsule

Most capsules are ingested in pairs twice a day as treatment for acute or chronic ailments.7

Liquid

Neem oil

Neem oil is a vegetable oil pressed from the fruits and seeds of the neem (Azadirachtaindica).

Neem sanitizer

  1. Azadirachtaindica (neem) Extract

  2. Ethanol (grain alcohol)

Semisolid

Creams

  1. Antifungal: Concentration of neem oil and ketakonazole shows antifungal activity.

  2. Antiseptic: Quercetin and ß-sitosterol, polyphenolic flavonoids, were purified from neem fresh leaves and were known to have antibacterial and antifungal properties and seeds hold valuable constituents including gedunin and azadirachtin.

  1. Face care products:

  2. Face wash

  3. Himalaya Ingredients

  4. Water (aqua)

  5. Ammonium lauryl sulphate

  6. Meliaazadirachtaindica leaf extract

  7. Cocamidopropylbetaine

  8. Glycerine

  9. Curcuma longa (turmeric) root extract

  10. Sodium hydroxide

  11. Phenoxyethanol

  12. Fragrance

Patanjali Ingredients

  1. Aloebarbadensis

  2. Citrus reticulate

  3. Azadirachtaindica

  4. Ocimum sanctum

  5. Aqua. Soft soap base

  6. Vitamin E

  7. Honey

Dental care cream himalaya ingredients

  1. Pomegranate fruit rind

  2. Indian Gum Arabic Tree's fresh twigs

  3. Triphala

Azadirachta indica

Patanjali ingredients

  1. Anacycluspyretheum 20 mg

  2. Azadirachtaindica 10 mg

  3. Acacia Arabica 20 mg

  4. Xanthoxylumalatum 20 mg

  5. Menthaspicata 10 mg

Pharmacological activities

  1. Larvicidal activity

  2. Antibacterial activity

  3. Antidiabetic evaluation

  4. Antioxidant

  5. Skin disorders

  6. Anti-Hiv /AIDS

  7. Antiulcer

  8. Antimalerial activity

  9. Anti-tumour effect

  10. Antifertility effect

  11. Anti-dental caries

  12. Antihypertensive and antipercholestermic effect

Antioxidant

It is a extract of yong flowers and leaves have strong antioxidant potential. It is a indicator of oxidative stress ,neem is a vegetable bitter tonic to promote good health.

Skin disorders

Neem can treat the many diseases and disorders like scabies and lice ; it is used in combination with curcuma longa (turmeric). It cured in 3 to 15 days of applictation and no allergic and adverse effect is observed.

Antiulcer

The bark of the neem extract reduced human gastric acid hypersecretion and gastroduodenal and gastro esophageal also.

Home- remedies

  1. It is useful for the athletes’ foot and other foot problems.

  2. For various infections like acne, pimples, and pure neem powder mixrd with water affected area.

  3. For the purpose of cleaning the teeth and bright and shiny.

  4. Prevent the breeding of mosquitoes by adding crushed neem seeds and pueneem oil to all breeding areas.

  5. Add the neem leaves for the preservation and storage of wheat, jawar, bajra, corn etc.

Conclusion

The collected information regarding the use of Azadirachta indica traditional uses of their efficacy and generally believed to be safe for human use natural compounds, especially of plant origin.

Source of Funding

None.

Conflict of Interest

None.

References

1 

A Maithani V Parcha G Pant I Dhulia D Kumar (NEEM) Leaf: A ReviewJ Pharm Res20114618247

2 

R Subapriya S Nagini Medicinal Properties of Neem Leaves: A Review Curr Med Chem - Anti-Cancer Agent521495610.2174/1568011053174828

3 

Medicinal properties of fractionated acetone/water neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract from Nigeria: a reviewNiger J Physiol Sci2009242157910.4314/njps.v24i2.52926

4 

J Dai A Varoujan Extraction and Colorimetric Determination of Azadirachtin-Related Limonoids in Neem Seed KernelJ Agric Food Chem199947937384210.1021/jf990227h

5 

M Verma S Sharma A Prasad Biological alternatives for termite control: a reviewInt Biodeterioration Biodegradation 20096389597210.1016/j.ibiod.2009.05.009

6 

S J Boeke M G Boersma G M Alink Safety evaluation of neem (Azadirachta indica) derived pesticidesJ Ethnopharmacol2004941254110.1016/j.jep.2004.05.011

7 

G Pandey K K Verma Evaluation Of Phytochemical, Antibacterial And Free Radical Scavenging Properties Of Azadirachta Indica (Neem) LeavesInt J Pharm Pharm Sci20146214



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© This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Article type

Review Article


Article page

11-14


Authors Details

A. G. Nerkar, G. S. Chakraborthy


Article History

Received : 26-05-2021

Accepted : 21-07-2021

Available online : 31-07-2021


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